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11. Schritt
This is the Circuit Board used for controlling each subsystem of the toaster.
  • This is the Circuit Board used for controlling each subsystem of the toaster.

  • The integrated circuit marked 4541 contains an oscillator which oscillates at some hundreds or thousands of oscillations per second, the speed being determined by the browning setting. It also contains a binary counter which can count up to 65,536.

  • The integrated circuit marked 4066 contains several logic gates which select the count value required for normal, defrost or reheat.

  • During the count, the logic gates supply a small current to the transistor, causing it to energise the electromagnet. At the end of the selected count, the logic gates switch this current off and the transistor de-energises the electromagnet.

  • While energised, the electromagnet holds the lever down. When the current is switched off the lever is released and the spring pops the toast up.

  • Toasters of this age frequently use these "4000-series" integrated circuits as they can run off a wide range of supply voltages. Newer toasters use a microcontroller (essentially a simple micro computer) as this is more flexible in its functions and can also easily drive LEDs to show you what the toaster is doing.

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