You cannot install anything newer than a 7th-generation CPU in this model. 8th and 9th generation processors require a Z370 chipset but the logic board in this iMac is a Z170.
Additionally, the TDP of the newer processors is higher than what Apple supports, and typically the EFI on Apple boards locks the device to specific CPUs, so even if they were technically compatible they would most likely not be on Apple’s EFI “whitelist” anyhow.
The best CPU upgrade you’re able to get on this machine is an i7-7700K (I believe you have an i7-7700 currently). The base clock on the 7700K is higher than the 7700, but honestly it’s probably not going to make a huge difference day-to-day (especially with Apple’s lackluster cooling solution). That being said the i7-7700 looks to be going for $200-$250 on eBay and the i7-7700K is around $250-$300, so if you can get a decent deal on buying and selling both and you want to go through a CPU replacement it might be a good deal. No more cores though :(
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